How to Start A Cucumber Farming Business in Ghana

Cucumber farming is one of the most lucrative agribusinesses in Ghana and it has become a major source of income to many people. One of the most interesting things about cucumber farming is that there is an already established market for farmers.

Cucumber farming in Ghana is not as complex as other areas of agriculture, so you can start small with relatively little or no experience. You don’t need any formal training to start cucumber farming business.

In this guide, you’ll learn how to start a lucrative cucumber farming business in Ghana. All you need to do is just to follow this guide to get started.


How to Cucumber Farming in Ghana

Before venturing into cucumber farming in Ghana, you need to take certain steps that will ensure that you’re successful. Some of these measures include budgeting, pest and disease control, and marketing. Having said that, below is a step by step guide on how to start cucumber farming in Ghana.

Step 1 – Choose a Good Location

Although cucumber can be grown anywhere, it is best you explore a good location that will increase your profitability. Cucumber is best grown in loamy or clay soil with adequate access to water.

Cucumber grows best in near-neutral soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0. They’ll tolerate soil that is slightly more acidic or slightly more alkaline, as long as the soil has adequate fertility and drains well.

Additionally, the area should have sufficient exposure to sunlight since light is very essential for not just cucumber growth, but plant growth.

The larger your farmland, the greater your yield. Also, when choosing your site, consider the proximity of your farm to your potential market.

Step 2 – Land Preparation

Once you have secured a good land, you will need to prepare it before you begin the planting of the cucumber seeds.

Land preparation is the most crucial step in cucumber farming in Ghana, and it is important that you pay the utmost attention to it. Clear the land you want to use for planting. Till and make ridges or beds on it, this will help in loosening the soil for effective growth and weed control. Treat the soil with insecticide and dress the bed with organic manure such as cow, or poultry dung.

Apply NPK fertilizer 15 15 15 if you are using inorganic manure. Plant the cucumber seeds two days after applying fertilizer, it can be directly on the soil or in the nursery, use a plastic tray for the nursery, transplant the seed after the appearance of a third leaf. The distance between furrows should be 70cm from another. Plant 2cm into the soil, 1-2 seeds per hole, 50cm apart if you are staking, 100cm apart if you are not staking.

Step 3: Seed Selection

Seed selection is a very important step in cucumber farming. The quality of your cucumber seed determines the yield. Most people prefer hybrid seeds because they are already treated. The nature of the seeds influences their growth pattern. In respect to their germination/harvest periods.

Cucumber starts sprouting 4-5 days of planting. Make sure to plant species that are acceptable in your area if it is for commercial purpose. Some of the recommended species are the; Thai, Murano seeds, Tokyo F1 etc.

Step 4: Mulching/Weeding of Cucumber Farm

Mulching helps in the control of erosion and moisture maintenance. Use mulching films but if you cannot get them, use black tarpaulin or nylon sheets. Weed is not good for any growing crop because they compete with each other for nutrients and sunlight.

You can use the traditional method for weeding that is the use of hoe or the use of herbicides/pesticides but care must be taken not to spray on the body of the plants in other not to reduce the maximum productivity of the seedlings even though this method is cheaper and easier when compared to the traditional method coupled with the expenses involved.

Step 4: Fertilizer Application

After the first application of fertilizer before planting, apply again during the vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages. Cucumber plants are heavy eaters as such their manure/fertilizer should be increased on every application, this is a kind of practice carried out in cucumber farming in Ghana. This will bring about healthy germination and bigger fruits.

Do not allow fertilizers to touch the leaves of the cucumber plant because it can make the plant to stunt. Fresh cow dung is high in ammonia (nitrogen) and when it touches the plant burns them off,  also they carry vectors that stick to the vegetables which cause harmful disease to humans when consumed. Treat dung for about 1-3 months before use.

You can mix one litre of fresh blood in four litres of water and apply as a soil drench, if your plant is fruiting you use liquid fertilizer. When too much water is applied on the cucumber farm a fungi disease-downy mildew will manifest due to humidity, to fix it mix four tablespoons of baking soda in four litres of water and use it as folia spray.

Step 5: Cucumber Farm Starking

It is a good thing to stake cucumber plants as it allows for easy movement in the farm, it also helps in monitoring cucumber growth, performance as well as good utilization of available space. A bamboo tree can be used for staking with rope for trailing of the seedlings. Use jatropha plant as a perimeter fencing since it repels cattle, other predators and also add economic value to the soil.

Step 5: Harvesting

Cucumbers are harvested when they’re immature and green in colour. It takes about 40 to 45 days for the cucumber to mature. However, the time taken to mature depends on the variety of cucumber seed planted.

Harvesting is usually done manually and the cucumber should be handled with care to prevent bruises. Also, high impact damage due to the cucumber falling can cause internal bloating. This is why you should avoid dropping the cucumber when harvesting or transporting them.

Once the cucumber is harvested, wash them quickly in a bowl of water and arrange them carefully in a bag for sale. Cucumber should be stored in a cool place with a relative humidity of 95%. However, it is not expected you store the cucumber for long.

Step 6: Marketing

There is an already established market for cucumber in Ghana. Once you’ve harvested your fruit, you should transport it to the market. This step should have been sorted out during your research prior to starting the business. A readily available market coupled with a bountiful harvest is a perfect recipe for success in cucumber farming.

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